1. Chronic left ventricular failure is a. a reduced left ventricular stroke volume in a resting…

1. Chronic left ventricular failure is a. a reduced left ventricular stroke volume in a resting subject. b. an abnormal reduction in ventricular myocyte contractility. c. a steeper relation between stroke work and end-diastolic pressure. d. associated with a cardiothoracic ratio of less than 0.5. 2. In left ventricular failure, a. pulmonary venous pressure decreases. b. the compliance of the lungs is increased. c. dyspnoea is often relieved by lying down. d. pulmonary capillary pressure is reduced. e. crackles (crepitations) are audible during basal lung auscultation.