1. The following are raised in a patient in chronic cardiac failure: a. peripheral and cardiac…

1. The following are raised in a patient in chronic cardiac failure: a. peripheral and cardiac sympathetic nerve activity. b. circulating catecholamines. c. circulating angiotensin II. d. circulating endothelin. e. circulating brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). 2. The renal response to chronic cardiac failure includes a. reduced salt and water retention. b. reduced activation of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system. c. pronounced renal vasoconstriction. d. expansion of the extracellular fluid volume.