The authors use different distributions of rewards to study learning in monkeys. In what sort of distribution are the tails (high and low values) approximately as common as the average?
What objective, outwardly visible sign did researchers use to assess monkey interest?
a “thumbs-up” sign
What reward condition was associated with faster learning in monkeys?
common reward prediciton errors
rare reward prediction errors
large magnitudes of reward changes
What does it mean that “phasic dopamine responses code for reward prediction errors”?
What does it suggest that pupil diameter was correlated with rare prediction errors,but uncorrelated with common prediction errors of the same magnitude?
What is the importance of “anticipatory licking”?
Monkeys were given the choice between a somewhat unpredicatable reward of juice, represented by an image of a fractal, and what alternative? What was the alternative represented by?
In general, monkeys learned to choose the fractal image when the expected reward from the “safe” choice was _____
Monkeys learned faster when the unpredictable rewards followed a normal distribution (where errors are relatively rare) as opposed to a uniform distribution (where errors would be more common). What do the authors observe regarding the activation of dopamine neurons to larger-than-expected rewards in normal vs uniform distribution trials?
When a reward is less than expected, what happens with dopamine neurons? Is the distribution of rewards in the learning exercise relevant to this?